A 55-year-old woman underwent radioiodine therapy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Post-therapeutic I-131 scan revealed radioiodine uptake in the pelvic region and in the thyroid bed. CT revealed a huge mass connected to the uterus. The tumor was operated on and histologically proven to be a leiomyoma of the uterus. Some physiological conditions or nonthyroidal diseases can cause false positives in patients with postoperative thyroid cancer. We suggest that uterine leiomyoma might be added to the pitfall list, although the mechanism of I-131 uptake remains unclear.