|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
The aim of this study was to compare coregistration of the bladder wall, bladder masses, and pelvic lymph nodes between sequential and simultaneous PET and MRI acquisitions obtained during hybrid 18F-FDG PET/MRI performed using a diuresis protocol in bladder cancer patients.Six bladder cancer patients underwent 18F-FDG hybrid PET/MRI, including IV Lasix administration and oral hydration, before imaging to achieve bladder clearance. Axial T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) was obtained approximately 40 minutes before PET (“sequential”) and concurrently with PET (“simultaneous”). Three-dimensional spatial coordinates of the bladder wall, bladder masses, and pelvic lymph nodes were recorded for PET and T2WI. Distances between these locations on PET and T2WI sequences were computed and used to compare in-plane (x-y plane) and through-plane (z-axis) misregistration relative to PET between T2WI acquisitions.The bladder increased in volume between T2WI acquisitions (sequential, 176  mL; simultaneous, 255  mL). Four patients exhibited a bladder mass, all with increased activity (SUV, 9.5-38.4). Seven pelvic lymph nodes in 4 patients showed increased activity (SUV, 2.2-9.9). The bladder wall exhibited substantially less misregistration relative to PET for simultaneous, compared with sequential, acquisitions in in-plane (2.8 [3.1] mm vs 7.4 [9.1] mm) and through-plane (1.7 [2.2] mm vs 5.7 [9.6] mm) dimensions. Bladder masses exhibited slightly decreased misregistration for simultaneous, compared with sequential, acquisitions in in-plane (2.2 [1.4] mm vs 2.6 [1.9] mm) and through-plane (0.0 [0.0] mm vs 0.3 [0.8] mm) dimensions. FDG-avid lymph nodes exhibited slightly decreased in-plane misregistration (1.1 [0.8] mm vs 2.5 [0.6] mm), although identical through-plane misregistration (4.0 [1.9] mm vs 4.0 [2.8] mm).Using hybrid PET/MRI, simultaneous imaging substantially improved bladder wall coregistration and slightly improved coregistration of bladder masses and pelvic lymph nodes.