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Transcatheter arterial embolization is a minimally invasive intervention developed from diagnostic angiography. The evolution of endovascular techniques, including arterial embolization and the use of occlusion balloons, has established a role for the interventional radiologist in the setting of uncontrolled postpartum hemorrhage. Arterial embolization of the uterine arteries as an alternative to hysterectomy has the advantages of being a minimally invasive treatment that preserves uterus without eliminating the possibility of future surgical intervention if necessary. Although arterial embolization has progressively become a standard of care over the last 30 years, its impact on future fertility still remains controversial.