Recent developments in computer assisted surgery offer promising solutions for the translation of the high accuracy of the preoperative imaging and planning into precise intraoperative surgery. Broad clinical application is hindered by high costs, additional time during intervention, problems of intraoperative man and machine interaction, and the spatially constrained arrangement of additional equipment within the operating theater. An alternative technique for computerized tomographic image based preoperative three-dimensional planning and precise surgery on bone structures using individual templates has been developed. For the preoperative customization of these mechanical tool guides, a desktop computer controlled milling device is used as a three-dimensional printer to mold the shape of small reference areas of the bone surface automatically into the body of the template. Thus, the planned position and orientation of the tool guide in spatial relation to bone is stored in a structural way and can be reproduced intraoperatively by adjusting the position of the customized contact faces of the template until the location of exact fit to the bone is found. No additional computerized equipment or time is needed during surgery. The feasibility of this approach has been shown in spine, hip, and knee surgery, and it has been applied clinically for pelvic repositioning osteotomies in acetabular dysplasia therapy.