Bone Marrow and Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 in Osseous Repair


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Abstract

Bone marrow stem cells and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 each has the capacity to repair osseous defects. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins require the presence of progenitor cells to function. It is hypothesized that a composite graft of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and marrow would be synergistic and could result in superior grafting to autogenous bone graft. Syngeneic Lewis rats with a 5-mm critical sized femoral defect were grafted with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and marrow, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, marrow, syngeneic cancellous bone graft, or carrier alone (control). Serial radiographs (3, 6, 9, 12 weeks) and torque testing (12 weeks) were performed. Bone formation and union were determined. The recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and marrow composite grafts achieved 100% union at 6 weeks. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein alone achieved 80% union by week 12. Both groups yielded a higher union rate and superior mechanical properties than did either syngeneic bone graft (38%) or marrow (47%) alone. The superior performance of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 combined with bone marrow in comparison with each component alone strongly supports a biologic synergism. This experimentation shows the clinical importance of establishing operative site proximity for the osteoinductive factors and responding progenitor cells.

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