Anterior Femoroacetabular Impingement After Periacetabular Osteotomy

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As experience with the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy has grown, an unexpected observation in a group of patients has alerted the authors to the risk of a secondary impingement syndrome that may occur some time after the periacetabular osteotomy. This possibly may explain residual pain and limited range of motion in a larger group of patients. The impingement is produced by abutment of the femoral head or head to neck junction on the anterior rim of the properly aligned acetabulum. The symptoms are those of restricted flexion, and limited or absent internal rotation in flexion, with variable groin pain. Magnetic resonance imaging studies may reveal acetabular labral disease and adjacent cartilage damage associated with the impingement. Lack of anterior or anterolateral offset between the femoral neck and head results in neck to rim contact when the hip is flexed and/or internally rotated. Before the periacetabular osteotomy this is compensated by the lack of anterior acetabular coverage, but after proper correction the mismatch becomes apparent. The authors recently have devised a routine during the periacetabular osteotomy procedure whereby after the acetabular fragment is corrected into the desired position, the joint is opened, visually inspected, and palpated for impingement with the hip flexed and internally rotated. When necessary, a resection osteoplasty of the femoral neck to head junction is performed to improve the head and neck offset and reduce the anterior contact. This, in the short term, has provided satisfactory prevention of postoperative impingement.

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