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The results of 106 high tibial valgus osteotomies in 85 patients were evaluated after a minimum 10-year followup to determine survivorship, complications, and risk factors associated with failure. Using Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis, 73% of patients at 5 years, 51% of patients at 10 years, 39% at 15 years, and 30% at 20 years after high tibial osteotomy had not required conversion of the high tibial osteotomy to a total knee arthroplasty. Univariate Cox regression analysis of risk factors showed that age older than 50 years, previous arthroscopic debridement, presence of a lateral tibial thrust, preoperative knee flexion less than 120°, insufficient valgus correction, and development of delayed union or nonunion were significantly associated with probability of early failure. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a body mass index of less than 25 kg/m2, presence of a lateral tibial thrust, and development of delayed union or nonunion were significantly associated with probability of early failure. Using recursive partitioning analysis of risk factors with the Wilcoxon test, a subset of patients who were younger than 50 years of age and who had preoperative knee flexion greater than 120° had a probability of survival after high tibial osteotomy approaching 95% at 5 years, 80% at 10 years, and 60% at 15 years. These results suggest that survival of high tibial osteotomy can be improved through careful patient selection and surgical technique.