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Polyethylene wear (linear penetration) in 37 hip replacements was assessed from digital images using a validated two-dimensional, edge detection-based computer algorithm. Patient activity was assessed with a pedometer, a step activity monitor and a simple visual analog scale. Joint use was related to wear at the 90% confidence level. Without three recognized outliers, wear was highly correlated to use. The visual analog scale activity rating was significantly related to wear for the 24 hip replacements with standard polyethylene. Univariate regression analysis indicated that male gender, height, weight (which were both highly correlated to male gender) and hip center of rotation were significantly correlated to wear. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that male gender, femoral off-set, and Hylamer® were significantly correlated to wear. Based on the wear and activity data from the 24 hip replacements with standard polyethylene, the average volumetric wear rate per million cycles with a 70 kg patient weight was 30 mm3. This unique in vivo result can be considered a target wear rate for standard polyethylene in hip simulator studies.