Osseous Anatomy of the Scapula

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Detailed anatomy and morphometry of the scapula were obtained to provide information for surgical procedures such as hardware fixation, drill hole placement, arthroscopic portal placement, and prosthetic positioning. Twenty-six measurements were made in 15 pairs of scapulas from cadavers. The average length of the scapulas from the superior to the inferior angle was 155 ± 16 mm (mean ± standard deviation). The thickness of the medial border 1 cm from the edge was 4 ± 1 mm. The superior border was sharp and thin, and the suprascapular notch was present as a foramen in two scapulas. The distance from the base of the suprascapular notch to the superior rim of the glenoid was 32 ± 3 mm. The length of the spine from the medial edge of the scapula to the lateral edge of the acromion was 134 ± 12 mm. The anteroposterior width of the spine at 1 and 4 cm from the medial edge was 7 ± 1 and 18 ± 3 mm, respectively; the width at the lateral edge (spinoglenoid notch) was 46 ± 6 mm. The acromion measured 48 ± 5 mm × 22 ± 4 mm and was 9 ± 1 mm thick. The acromial shape was flat in 23%, curved in 63%, and hooked in 14% of scapulas. The distance from the glenoid to the acromion was 16 ± 2 mm. The glenoid dimensions were 29 ± 3 mm (anteroposterior) × 36 ± 4 mm (superoinferior) and faced posterior by 8 ± 4°. Anteroposterior thickness of the head of the scapula 1 cm from the surface was 22 ± 4 mm. The thickness of the coracoid was 11 ± 1 mm. The average length of the coracoacromial ligament was 27 ± 5 mm. Scapulas from male cadavers were significantly larger than scapulas from female cadavers in 19 measurements.

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