Use of Injectable Calcium Phosphate Cement for Fracture Fixation: A Review

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Injectable osteoconductive calcium phosphate cements have been introduced as an adjunct to internal fixation for treating selected fractures. These cements harden without producing much heat, develop compressive strength, and are remodeled slowly in vivo. The main purpose of the cement is to fill voids in metaphyseal bone, thereby reducing the need for bone graft, but cements also may improve the holding strength around metal devices in osteoporotic bone. Several bioactive cements are being developed. One of these cements, Skeletal Repair System, is available in Europe and has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use in selected distal radius fractures. Cadaveric studies have shown that using Skeletal Repair System cement with conventional metal fixation in certain fractures of the distal radius, tibial plateau, proximal femur, and calcaneus can produce better stability, stiffness, and strength than metal fixation alone. Early clinical results have shown reduced time to full weightbearing when cement has been used for augmentation of tibial plateau and calcaneal fractures, more rapid gain of strength and range of motion when used in distal radius fractures, and improved stability in certain hip fractures. Bioactive cements in general also may prove useful in vertebroplasty.

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