In Vivo Fluoroscopic Analysis of the Normal Human Knee

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


The objective of the current study was to use fluoroscopy and computed tomography to accurately determine the three-dimensional, in vivo, weightbearing kinematics of five normal knees. Three-dimensional computer-aided design models of each subject’s femur and tibia were recreated from the three-dimensional computed tomography bone density data. Three-dimensional motions for each subject then were determined for five weightbearing activities. During gait, the lateral condyle experienced −4.3 mm (range, −1.9–−10.3 mm) of average motion, whereas the medial condyle moved only −0.9 mm (range, 3.4–−5.8 mm). One subject experienced 5.8 mm of medial condyle motion. On average, during deep flexion activities, subjects experienced −12.7 mm (range, 1.4–−29.8 mm) of lateral condyle motion, whereas the medial condyle motion only was −2.9 mm (range, 3.0–−9.0 mm). One subject experienced 5.8 and 9.0 mm of medial condyle motion during gait and a deep knee bend, respectively leading to the occurrence of a lateral pivot motion. During the deep flexion activities, the subjects experienced significantly more axial rotation (> 13°) than gait (< 5°). During all five activities, the lateral condyle experienced significantly more anteroposterior translation, leading to axial rotation of the tibia relative to the femur.

    loading  Loading Related Articles