We hypothesized local recurrence of Grade 1 chondrosarcoma in the long bones of the extremity negatively influences survival. To explore that notion, we retrospectively reviewed 164 patients treated surgically for Grade 1 chondrosarcoma of the long bones. Local recurrence occurred in 21 (13%) patients. Four patients had progression of tumor grade on recurrence, and six patients had more than one local recurrence. Seven of the 21 patients with local recurrences had metastasis. Six of the 21 patients with local recurrences died secondary to chondrosarcoma. Local recurrence, progression of grade at recurrence, and distant metastases all were associated with a decrease in overall survival. The difference in survival was not apparent until after 5 years and was more pronounced after 10 years. Recurrence may be regarded as a declaration of an aggressive phenotype and should be treated as such.
Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.