Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Turkish Lysholm Knee Scale: Ease of Use, Validity, and Reliability

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BackgroundThe Lysholm knee scale, first published in 1982, is an eight-item questionnaire designed to evaluate patients after knee ligament injury. However, as a tool developed in English, its use as a validated instrument has been limited to English-language populations.Questions/purposesThe objectives of this study were to test the ease of use, reliability, and validity of a Turkish-language, culturally adapted version of the Lysholm knee scale.MethodsThe Lysholm knee scale was translated into Turkish according to Guillemin’s recommendations. Seventy patients (mean age, 36 years; range, 17-72 years) with different knee complaints were included, and the scale was completed twice by each participant at 3- to 14-day intervals to assess test-retest reliability based on the interrater correlation coefficient, whereas Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency. External validity was evaluated with correlations between the Lysholm knee scale, Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale, and SF-36. The distribution of floor and ceiling effects was determined.ResultsPatients completed the Turkish-language Lysholm questionnaire in approximately 3 minutes. The test-retest reliability was 0.82, with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.68. The Lysholm knee score was strongly correlated with the Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (r = 0.78). The Turkish Lysholm knee scale showed high correlations with the SF-36 physical component score (r = 0.61) and a low association with the mental component domain (r = 0.14).ConclusionsThe Turkish version of the Lysholm knee scale is quickly administered, valid, and reliable, and can be used for patients with various knee disorders.Level of EvidenceLevel III, diagnostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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