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To review current techniques used in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (LKP), and to describe a novel approach that facilitates baring of Descemet's membrane (maximum depth anterior lamellar keratoplasty).A highly selective review of the literature is presented, with descriptions of different techniques in the light of the authors' personal experience over 3 decades. A novel method for baring Descemet's membrane is detailed. It involves air injection in such a way that a large bubble is created between stroma and Descemet's membrane. Visual results of this operation in patients with keratoconus are reviewed.Visual results 6 months after maximum depth anterior LKP in 181 eyes with keratoconus are comparable with those resulting from penetrating keratoplasty: 89% achieved a best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 10% achieved 20/20 or better. Intraoperative perforation occurred in 9% of cases.Maximum depth anterior LKP has some important advantages when compared with other types of anterior lamellar keratoplasty or penetrating keratoplasty, but it remains a challenging procedure. A new technique considerably facilitates this operation and reduces intraoperative complications.