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Pseudomonal keratitis usually progresses rapidly, often resulting in corneal perforation and blindness. Remarkable events in pseudomonal keratitis include massive polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration in the cornea and various degrees of tissue destruction. With regard to initiation of these inflammatory events, various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines appear to be key substances and have been the subject of several studies. Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines believed to be important in pseudomonal keratitis include interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 (homologous to human IL-8), macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), IL-12, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. In this article, current concepts related to the role of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in pseudomonal keratitis are reviewed.