Endotoxin-binding and -neutralizing properties of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and monoclonal antibodies HA-1A and E5

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ObjectiveTo compare the endotoxin-binding and -neutralizing properties of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, the human monoclonal antiendotoxin antibody HA-1A, and the murine antiendotoxin antibody E5.DesignProspective, randomized, placebo-controlled laboratory study.SettingBiotechnology company research laboratory.SubjectsFemale CD-1 mice.InterventionsRecombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, HA-1A, a human immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody raised against Escherichia coli J5 (Rc) endotoxin, and E5, a murine immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody raised against E. coli J5 endotoxin, were compared in the following assays: a) binding to rough lipopolysaccharide immobilized onto microtiter plates; b) inhibition of lipopolysaccharide activity in the limulus amebocyte lysate assay; c) inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release in whole blood; and d) protection against lethal endotoxin challenge in CD-1 mice.Measurements and Main ResultsThe binding affinity of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein for immobilized lipopolysaccharide is apparently greater than the binding affinity of HA-1A or E5. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein neutralized lipopolysaccharide activity in the chromogenic limulus amebocyte lysate assay, while neither monoclonal antibody inhibited lipopolysaccharide activity. Similarly, bactericidal/permeability-increasing proteinreduced lipopolysaccharide-mediated tumor necrosis factor production in human whole blood in vitro, whereas monoclonal antibodies had slight (HA-1A) or no (E5) effect on lipopolysaccharide activity in this system. Administration of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein gave >90% protection against an LDg0 dose of endotoxin in CD-1 mice, while treatment with HA-1A or E5 did not improve survival rate.ConclusionsNeither monoclonal antibody was as effective as bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein at binding or neutralizing endotoxin in vitro or in vivo. The potent endotoxin-binding and -neutralizing properties of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein indicate that it might be useful in the treatment of endotoxin-related disorders in humans. (Crit Care Med 1994; 22:559–565)

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