Effects of prophylactic fenoldopam infusion on renal blood flow and renal tubular function during acute hypovolemia in anesthetized dogs

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Abstract

Objective

It was hypothesized that fenoldopam mesylate, a selective dopamine agonist, may preserve renal perfusion and decrease tubular oxygen consumption during states of hypoperfusion, such as hypovolemic shock. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of fenoldopam (0.1 μg·kg−1·min−1) on renal blood flow, urine output, creatinine clearance, and sodium clearance in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs that had undergone partial exsanguination to acutely decrease cardiac output.

Design

Prospective, randomized, controlled experiment.

Setting

University-based animal laboratory and research unit.

Subjects

Eight female beagle dogs.

Interventions

Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, renal blood flow, urine output, creatinine clearance, and fractional excretion of sodium were measured and calculated at four times: a) before infusion of fenoldopam or normal saline; b) during infusion of fenoldopam or normal saline (1 hr); c) during a 90-min period of hypovolemia (induced by acute partial exsanguination), with concurrent infusion of fenoldopam or normal saline; and d) during a 1-hr period after retransfusing the dogs.

Measurements and Main Results

Administration of fenoldopam (0.1 μg·kg−1·min−1) was not associated with hemodynamic instability. Renal blood flow and urine output decreased significantly from baseline (p < .01) during the hypovolemic period in the placebo group (72 ± 20 to 47 ± 6 mL/min and 0.26 ± 0.15 to 0.08 ± 0.05 mL/min, respectively) but not in the fenoldopam group (75 ± 14 to 73 ± 17 mL/min and 0.3 ± 0.19 to 0.14 ± 0.05 mL/min, respectively). Creatinine clearance and fractional excretion of sodium decreased significantly from baseline (p < .01) in the placebo group during the hypovolemic period (3.0 ± 0.4 to 1.8 ± 0.8 mL·kg−1·min−1 and 1.7% ± 0.9% to 0.4% ± 0.2%, respectively) but not in the dogs that received fenoldopam (3.0 ± 1.0 to 2.9 ± 0.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 and 1.9% ± 1.1% to 1.7% ± 2.7%, respectively).

Conclusions

Fenoldopam ablated the tubular prerenal response to profound hypovolemia and maintained renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and natriuresis without causing hypotension. This suggests that fenoldopam may have a renoprotective effect in acute ischemic injury.

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