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Determine the significance of recovering yeasts from intraoperative specimens from the abdominal cavity and to evaluate the effect of a single intraoperative dose of fluconazole on clinical outcome in patients with intra-abdominal perforations.Prospective, randomized, double-blind study.Multicenter study from 13 hospitals in Norway.One hundred nine patients with intra-abdominal perforations.Patients were randomized to receive either a single 400-mg fluconazole dose or placebo during the operation.An intra-abdominal specimen for microbiological culture was obtained at the time of the operation. The primary response variable in the study was death. Secondary response variables were three parameters indicating a complicated postoperative period: mechanical ventilation for ≥5 days, intensive care treatment for ≥10 days, and use of a central venous catheter for ≥10 days. Yeasts were recovered from a intraoperative intra-abdominal specimen from only 1 (3.5%) of 28 patients with perforated appendicitis and from 32 (39.5%) of 81 nonappendicitis patients. Excluding the appendicitis patients, the yeast recovery rate was high both for patients hospitalized at the time of the perforation (45%) and for nonhospitalized patients (32%). The overall mortality was 11% (12 patients). Single-dose intraoperative fluconazole prophylaxis did not reach a statistically significant effect on mortality (4 of 53 patients in the fluconazole group and 8 of 56 patients in the placebo group died [p = .059]). The only two explanatory variables significantly related to death were a intraoperative finding of yeast from an intra-abdominal specimen and the occurrence of a spontaneous perforation in a patient already hospitalized for nonsurgical cancer treatment. Detection of yeast was also a significant explanatory variable for a prolonged period of mechanical ventilation, intensive care treatment, and prolonged use of a central venous catheter.Single-dose intraoperative fluconazole prophylaxis did not have a statistically significant effect on overall mortality (odds ratio = 0.21; 95% confidence interval, 0.04–1.06;p = .059) in patients with intra-abdominal perforation. The recovery rate of yeast from intraoperative specimens from the abdominal cavity was high (>30%) and was associated with death and a complicated postoperative course.