Minimally invasive hemodynamic monitoring for the intensivist: Current and emerging technology

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ObjectiveTo review minimally invasive cardiac output monitoring devices currently available for use in the intensive care unit.Data SourcesMedline search from 1966 to present plus cited reference studies and abstracts from available product literature.Study SelectionSelection criteria included published reports and abstracts comparing the accuracy of minimally invasive cardiac output monitors to a “gold standard.”Data SynthesisMany reports have been published on the accuracy of individual minimally invasive cardiac output monitors, but cumulative data reviewing each type of monitor have not been synthesized and made available to the clinician.ConclusionsEmerging noninvasive or minimally invasive means of cardiac output monitoring are based on varied physiologic principles and can be used for following hemodynamic trends. Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; it is important for the clinician to understand the strengths and limitations of each device to effectively use the information derived.

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