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To describe the incidence of clinical deep venous thrombosis associated with femoral central venous catheters (CVC-DVT) in children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).Retrospective case-matched control series.Pediatric intensive care units of two university-affiliated hospitals.All eight pediatric DKA patients with femoral central venous catheters between 1998 and 2001, and 16 age-matched control patients with femoral central venous catheters and circulatory shock.None.The records of all children with DKA and the control patients were reviewed. CVC-DVT was defined as persistent ipsilateral leg swelling after removal of a femoral central venous catheter. Control patients with coagulopathies, thrombocytopenia, cancer, and hyperglycemia were excluded. Four of eight patients with DKA developed CVC-DVT compared with none of the 16 control patients (p = .007, Fisher’s exact test). All four patients with DKA and CVC-DVT were <3 yrs old. Doppler ultrasound examination was performed on three of the four patients with clinical CVC-DVT, confirming the diagnosis in each case.This study suggests that young children with DKA have an increased incidence of clinical DVT associated with the placement of femoral central venous catheters.