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To describe the course of plasma sTREM (soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells)-1, procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations during sepsis and their clinical informative value in predicting outcome.Prospective, noninterventional study.Medical adult intensive care unit at a university hospital in France.Sixty-three critically ill patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock.None.Soluble TREM-1 concentrations were significantly lower at admission in nonsurvivors (n = 21) than in survivors (n = 42) (94 [30–258] vs. 154 [52–435] pg/mL, p = .02), whereas PCT levels were higher among nonsurvivors (19.2 [0.3–179] vs. 2.4 (0–254) pg/mL, p = .001). CRP levels did not differ between the two groups of patients. Plasma PCT and CRP decreased during the 14-day period of study in both survivors and nonsurvivors. Conversely, sTREM-1 plasma concentrations remained stable or even increased in nonsurviving patients and decreased in survivors. An elevated baseline sTREM-1 level was found to be an independent protective factor with an odds of dying of 0.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.1–0.8).A progressive decline of plasma sTREM-1 concentration indicates a favorable clinical evolution during the recovery phase of sepsis. In addition, baseline sTREM-1 level may prove useful in predicting outcome of septic patients.