Mild therapeutic hypothermia in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing immediate percutaneous coronary intervention*

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Objective:Mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) has been integrated into international resuscitation guidelines. In the majority of patients, sudden cardiac arrest is caused by myocardial infarction. This study investigated whether a combination of MTH with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is feasible, safe, and potentially beneficial in patients after cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction.Design:Single-center observational study with a historical control group.Setting:University clinic.Patients:Thirty-three patients after cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation as initial rhythm and restoration of spontaneous circulation who remained unconscious at admission and presented with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).Interventions:In 16 consecutive patients (2005–2006), MTH was initiated immediately after admission and continued during primary PCI. Seventeen consecutive patients who were treated in a similar 2-yr observation interval before implementation of MTH (2003–2004) served as a control group. Feasibility, safety, mortality, and neurologic outcome were documented.Measurements and Main Results:Initiation of MTH did not result in longer door-to-balloon times compared with the control group (82 vs. 85 mins), indicating that implementation of MTH did not delay the onset of primary PCI. Target temperature (32–34°C) in the MTH group was reached within 4 hrs, consistent with previous trials and suggesting that primary PCI did not affect the velocity of cooling. Despite a tendency to increased bleeding complications and infections, patients treated with MTH tended to have a lower mortality after 6 months (25% vs. 35%, p = .71) and an improved neurologic outcome as determined by a Glasgow-Pittsburgh Cerebral Performance Scale score of 1 or 2 (69% vs. 47% in the control group, p = .30).Conclusions:MTH in combination with primary PCI is feasible and safe in patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction. A combination of these therapeutic procedures should be strongly considered as standard therapy in patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to STEMI.

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