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To study the potential beneficial role of furosemide in resolving renal failure after hemofiltration in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.Single-center randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study.A 13-bed mixed intensive care unit (ICU) in a teaching hospital.Patients who had been treated with continuous venovenous hemofiltration were included.After the end of continuous venovenous hemofiltration, the urine of the first 4 hours was collected for measuring creatinine clearance. Patients were subsequently randomized for furosemide (0.5 mg/kg/hr) or placebo by continuous infusion. To prevent hypovolemia, the rate of fluid infusion was adapted every hour and was set as the urinary production of the previous hour.End points were renal recovery (creatinine clearance more than 30 mL/min or stable serum creatinine without renal replacement therapy) in the ICU and in the hospital. Seventy-two patients were included and 71 were eligible for the analysis. The 36 furosemide-treated patients had a significantly increased urinary volume compared with the 35 placebo-treated patients (median 247 mL/hr (interquartile range [IQR] 774 mL/hr) vs. 117 mL/hr (IQR 158 mL/hr), p = 0.003) and greater sodium excretion (median 73 mmol/L (IQR 48) vs. 37 (IQR 48) mmol/L, p = 0.001). In the furosemide group 25 patients and in the placebo group 27 patients showed recovery of renal function at ICU discharge (p = 0.46). Two patients of the furosemide group needed long-term dialysis dependency (p = 0.23).Furosemide by continuous infusion in the recovery phase of hemofiltration-dependent acute kidney failure did increase urinary volume and sodium excretion but did not lead to a shorter duration of renal failure or more frequent renal recovery.