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The incidence of multiple organ failure in pediatric trauma victims is lower than in the adult population. However, the molecular mechanisms are not yet defined. We investigated whether the pathophysiologic characteristics of hemorrhage-induced lung injury may be age dependent and may be regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ).Prospective, laboratory investigation that used an established rodent model of hemorrhagic shock.University hospital laboratory.Young (n = 67; 3–5 months old) and mature (n = 66; 11–13 months old) male rats.Hemorrhagic shock was induced in young and mature rats by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial blood pressure of 50 mm Hg. After 3 hours, rats were rapidly resuscitated by infusing the shed blood and killed 3 hours thereafter.In young rats, lung injury was characterized by accumulation of red cells and neutrophils at the end of the resuscitation period; on Western blot analysis, lung expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was increased. In contrast, the severity of lung injury was more pronounced in mature rats. Lung myeloperoxidase activity and expression of constitutive and inducible intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was significantly higher in mature rats compared with young rats. Mature rats also had higher plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines compared with young rats. This heightened inflammation was associated with higher degree of activation of nuclear factor-κB and down-regulation of PPARγ and heat shock factor-1 in the lung of mature rats compared with young rats. Treatment with the PPARγ ligand, the cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2, ameliorated lung injury in young, but not in mature animals.Lung injury after severe hemorrhage is age dependent and may be secondary to a diverse regulation of PPARγ.