Tidal recruitment assessed by electrical impedance tomography and computed tomography in a porcine model of lung injury*

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Objectives:To determine the validity of electrical impedance tomography to detect and quantify the amount of tidal recruitment caused by different positive end-expiratory pressure levels in a porcine acute lung injury model.Design:Randomized, controlled, prospective experimental study.Setting:Academic research laboratory.Subjects:Twelve anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs.Interventions:Acute lung injury was induced by central venous oleic acid injection and abdominal hypertension in seven animals. Five healthy pigs served as control group. Animals were ventilated with positive end-expiratory pressure of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm H2O, respectively, in a randomized order.Measurements and Main Results:At any positive end-expiratory pressure level, electrical impedance tomography was obtained during a slow inflation of 12 mL/kg of body weight. Regional-ventilation-delay indices quantifying the time until a lung region reaches a certain amount of impedance change were calculated for lung quadrants and for every single electrical impedance tomography pixel, respectively. Pixel-wise calculated regional-ventilation-delay indices were plotted in a color-coded regional-ventilation-delay map. Regional-ventilation-delay inhomogeneity that quantifies heterogeneity of ventilation time courses was evaluated by calculating the scatter of all pixel-wise calculated regional-ventilation-delay indices. End-expiratory and end-inspiratory computed tomography scans were performed at each positive end-expiratory pressure level to quantify tidal recruitment of the lung. Tidal recruitment showed a moderate inter-individual (r = .54; p < .05) and intra-individual linear correlation (r = .46 up to r = .73 and p < .05, respectively) with regional-ventilation-delay obtained from lung quadrants. Regional-ventilation-delay inhomogeneity was excellently correlated with tidal recruitment intra- (r = .90 up to r = .99 and p < .05, respectively) and inter-individually (r = .90; p < .001).Conclusions:Regional-ventilation-delay can be noninvasively measured by electrical impedance tomography during a slow inflation of 12 mL/kg of body weight and visualized using ventilation delay maps. Our experimental data suggest that the impedance tomography-based analysis of regional-ventilation-delay inhomogeneity provides a good estimate of the amount of tidal recruitment and may be useful to individualize ventilatory settings.

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