Factors affecting team leadership skills and their relationship with quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation*

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Objective:This study aims to explore the relationship between team-leadership skills and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in an adult cardiac-arrest simulation. Factors affecting team-leadership skills were also assessed.Design:Forty advanced life-support providers leading a cardiac arrest team in a standardized cardiac-arrest simulation were videotaped. Background data were collected, including age (in yrs), sex, whether they had received any leadership training in the past, whether they were part of a professional group, the most recent advanced life-support course (in months) they had undergone, advanced life-support instructor/provider status, and whether they had led in any cardiac arrest situation in the preceding 6 months.Measurements and Main Results:Participants were scored using the Cardiac Arrest Simulation test score and Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire for leadership skills. Process-focused quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation data were collected directly from manikin and video recordings. Primary outcomes were complex technical skills (measured as Cardiac Arrest Simulation test score, preshock pause, and hands-off ratio). Secondary outcomes were simple technical skills (chest-compression rate, depth, and ventilation rate). Univariate linear regressions were performed to examine how leadership skills affect quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and bivariate correlations elicited factors affecting team-leadership skills.Teams led by leaders with the best leadership skills performed higher quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation with better technical performance (R2 = 0.75, p < .001), shorter preshock pauses (R2 = 0.18, p < .001), with lower total hands-off ratio (R2 = 0.24, p = .01), and shorter time to first shock (R2 = 0.14, p = .02). Leadership skills were not significantly associated with more simple technical skills such as chest-compression rate, depth, and ventilation rate. Prior training in team leader skills was independently associated with better leadership behavior.Conclusions:There is an association between team leadership skills and cardiac arrest simulation test score, preshock pause, and hands off ratio. Developing leadership skills should be considered an integral part of resuscitation training.

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