Effects of Sitting Position and Applied Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Respiratory Mechanics of Critically Ill Obese Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation*


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Abstract

Objective:To evaluate the extent to which sitting position and applied positive end-expiratory pressure improve respiratory mechanics of severely obese patients under mechanical ventilation.Design:Prospective cohort study.Settings:A 15-bed ICU of a tertiary hospital.Participants:Fifteen consecutive critically ill patients with a body mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) above 35 were compared to 15 controls with body mass index less than 30.Interventions:Respiratory mechanics was first assessed in the supine position, at zero end-expiratory pressure, and then at positive end-expiratory pressure set at the level of auto-positive endexpiratory pressure. Second, all measures were repeated in the sitting position.Measurements and Main Results:Assessment of respiratory mechanics included plateau pressure, auto-positive end-expiratory pressure, and flow-limited volume during manual compression of the abdomen, expressed as percentage of tidal volume to evaluate expiratory flow limitation. In supine position at zero end-expiratory pressure, all critically ill obese patients demonstrated expiratory flow limitation (flow-limited volume, 59.4% [51.3–81.4%] vs 0% [0–0%] in controls; p < 0.0001) and greater auto-positive end-expiratory pressure (10 [5–12.5] vs 0.7 [0.4–1.25] cm H2O in controls; p < 0.0001). Applied positive end-expiratory pressure reverses expiratory flow limitation (flow-limited volume, 0% [0–21%] vs 59.4% [51–81.4%] at zero end-expiratory pressure; p < 0.001) in almost all the obese patients, without increasing plateau pressure (24 [19–25] vs 22 [18–24] cm H2O at zero end-expiratory pressure; p = 0.94). Sitting position not only reverses partially or completely expiratory flow limitation at zero end-expiratory pressure (flow-limited volume, 0% [0–58%] vs 59.4% [51–81.4%] in supine obese patients; p < 0.001) but also results in a significant drop in auto-positive end-expiratory pressure (1.2 [0.6–4] vs 10 [5–12.5] cm H2O in supine obese patients; p < 0.001) and plateau pressure (15.6 [14–17] vs 22 [18–24] cm H2O in supine obese patients; p < 0.001).Conclusions:In critically ill obese patients under mechanical ventilation, sitting position constantly and significantly relieved expiratory flow limitation and auto-positive end-expiratory pressure resulting in a dramatic drop in alveolar pressures. Combining sitting position and applied positive end-expiratory pressure provides the best strategy.

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