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Guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend a chest compression rate of at least 100 compressions/min. A recent clinical study reported optimal return of spontaneous circulation with rates between 100 and 120/min during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the relationship between compression rate and survival is still undetermined.Prospective, observational study.Data is from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Prehospital Resuscitation IMpedance threshold device and Early versus Delayed analysis clinical trial.Adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated by emergency medical service providers.None.Data were abstracted from monitor-defibrillator recordings for the first five minutes of emergency medical service cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Multiple logistic regression assessed odds ratio for survival by compression rate categories (<80, 80–99, 100–119, 120–139, ≥140), both unadjusted and adjusted for sex, age, witnessed status, attempted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, location of arrest, chest compression fraction and depth, first rhythm, and study site. Compression rate data were available for 10,371 patients; 6,399 also had chest compression fraction and depth data. Age (mean ± SD) was 67 ± 16 years. Chest compression rate was 111 ± 19 per minute, compression fraction was 0.70 ± 0.17, and compression depth was 42 ± 12 mm. Circulation was restored in 34%; 9% survived to hospital discharge. After adjustment for covariates without chest compression depth and fraction (n = 10,371), a global test found no significant relationship between compression rate and survival (p = 0.19). However, after adjustment for covariates including chest compression depth and fraction (n = 6,399), the global test found a significant relationship between compression rate and survival (p = 0.02), with the reference group (100–119 compressions/min) having the greatest likelihood for survival.After adjustment for chest compression fraction and depth, compression rates between 100 and 120 per minute were associated with greatest survival to hospital discharge.