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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

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Abstract

Objective:

Long-term outcomes of patients treated with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure (i.e., cardiogenic shock complicating chronic cardiomyopathy) have not yet been reported. This study was undertaken to describe their outcomes and determine mortality-associated factors.

Design:

Retrospective analysis of data prospectively collected.

Setting:

Twenty-six–bed tertiary hospital ICU.

Patients:

One hundred five patients implanted with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure.

Intervention:

None.

Measurements and Main Results:

From March 2007 to January 2015, 105 patients were implanted with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure in our ICU (67% of them had an intraaortic balloon pump to unload the left ventricle). Their 1-year survival rate was 42%; most of the survivors were transplanted either directly or after switching to central bilateral centrifugal pump, ventricular-assist device, or total artificial heart. Most deaths occurred early after multiple organ failure. Multivariable analyses retained (odds ratio [95% CI]) pre–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of more than 11 (3.3 [1.3–8.3]), idiopathic cardiomyopathy (0.4 [0.2–1]), cardiac disease duration greater than 2 years pre–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (2.8 [1.2–6.9]), and pre–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation blood lactate greater than 4 mmol/L (2.6 [1.03–6.4]) as independent predictors of 1-year mortality. Only 17% of patients with pre–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores of 14 or more survived, whereas 52% of those with scores less than 7 and 60% of those with scores 7 or more and less than 11 were alive 1 year later.

Conclusions:

Among this selected cohort of 105 patients implanted with venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for acute decompensated heart failure, 1-year survival was 42%, but better for patients with pre–extracorporeal membrane oxygenation Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores of less than 11. Venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation should be considered for patients with acute decompensated heart failure, but timing of implantation is crucial.

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