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To prospectively evaluate the relationship of established inflammatory markers and presepsin on nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia and to correlate presepsin levels to the occurrence and severity of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia.Patients were prospectively enrolled and blood samples taken, followed by a retrospective evaluation of laboratory values and angiographic findings. The study was ethics committee approved.Patients with clinical suspicion of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia underwent catheter angiography of the superior mesenteric artery. Images were assessed by two experienced radiologists on consensus basis using a previously published standardized reporting system (Homburg-Nonocclusive Mesenteric Ischemia-Score). Two groups were formed according to the severity of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, mild and severe, patients without clinical signs of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia formed the reference group. These data were correlated to inflammatory blood markers assessed pre- and postoperatively: C-reactive protein, leucocytes, procalcitonin, and presepsin as well as outcome data.Between January 2010 and March 2011, a total of 839 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery participated in this study.Mild nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia was diagnosed in 4.5%, and severe nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia in 3.2%. Median postoperative presepsin concentrations were significantly greater in mild and severe nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia than in non-nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. Statistics showed that postoperative presepsin better discriminated mild and severe nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia than any other tested biomarker.Elevated postoperative plasma presepsin concentrations are an independent predictor of mild and severe nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. The established inflammatory blood markers significantly correlate with the development and severity of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia.