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The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of past and current research regarding language and literacy development in children with mild to severe hearing impairment. A related goal is to identify gaps in the empirical literature and suggest future research directions. Included in the language development review are studies of semantics (vocabulary, novel word learning, and conceptual categories), morphology, and syntax. The literacy section begins by considering dimensions of literacy and the ways in which hearing impairment may influence them. It is followed by a discussion of existing evidence on reading and writing, and highlights key constructs that need to be addressed for a comprehensive understanding of literacy in these children.