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Nutrition of colonic epithelial cells is mainly from short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by bacterial fermentation in the colonic lumen. n-Butyrate contributes more carbon of oxidation to epithelial cells than glucose or glutamine from the vasculature. Incomplete starvation of colonic epithelial cells through lack of luminal SCFAs leads, in the short term, to mucosal hypoplasia with either diminished absorption or diarrhea. A chronic lack of SCFAs or complete organ starvation in conjunction with other factors leads to nutritional colitis, either “diversion colitis” or “starvation colitis”. Whether predominantly diarrhea or colitis develops in mucosal malnutrition appears to depend upon the severity and duration of starvation. Ulcerative colitis may be classified as a nutritional colitis in that colonic epithelial cells are unable to utilize SCFAs reflecting epithelial starvation despite abundant SCFAs.