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Juvenile polyps of the colon and rectum traditionally have been viewed as being benign inflammatory or harmartomatous lesions without potential for malignant change. The authors report a case of adenocarcinoma developing in a patient with sporadic juvenile polyposis. Juvenile polyposis was diagnosed in the patient at age 4 years. He underwent subtotal colectomy at age 6 years. At age 12, he underwent a proctectomy and a Swenson pull-through because of adenomatous changes in the rectal stump. At age 19 surveillance endoscopy revealed invasive cancer in a juvenile polyp.