Clinical, physiologic, and anatomic assessments were carried out in 22 female patients with symptomatic rectocele (Group A), 15 patients with asymptomatic rectocele (Group B), and 14 subjects having no rectocele (Group C). Resting anal pressure, rectal pressure, rectal compliance, anorectal inhibitory reflex, and rectal sensation did not differ among the groups. Proctography revealed that the lengths of the rectocele during attempted defecation in groups A (1.6 [1.0-3.5] cm) (median and range) and B (1.6 [1.0-3.0] cm) were significantly greater than that in Group C (0.4 [0.1-0.9] cm) (P<0.001 in both groups). Median pelvic floor descent at rest in Groups A (4.3 [1.6-7.5] cm) (median and range) and B (4.3 [1.3-6.9] cm) were significantly greater than that in Group C (2.5 [1.2-5.0] cm) (P<0.001 andP<0.02, respectively). These results indicate that rectocele is not associated with any physiologic change apart from a significant increase of pelvic floor descent.