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During its second meeting at Amsterdam in 1990, the International Collaborative Group on Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (ICG-HNPCC) decided to carry out a pilot study on colorectal cancer surveillance in HNPCC. The objectives of the study were to ascertain in each of the participating centers the number of HNPCC families, the recommended screening procedures, the age at diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC), and the occurrence of interval cancers. Nine centers in seven countries including Denmark, Finland, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States participated. Data were derived from a total of 165 families. With respect to screening, half of the centers advise colonoscopy as the only procedure. The interval between the consecutive examinations varies from one to three years. In the majority of the centers, screening begins at 20 to 25 years. Lifelong screening is recommended by three centers, while the rest advise discontinuation at age 60 to 75 years. The family material included 840 patients with colorectal cancer. The mean age at diagnosis was 45 years, and about 15 percent were diagnosed at age 60 or later. A total of 682 high-risk relatives are being followed. After the follow-up of 1 to 10 years in these families, only six cases of interval cancers were encountered.