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Stapled transanal rectal resection is advocated for the treatment of obstructed defecation syndrome. Supporting evidence for its safety and effectiveness has been lacking. To address this, the European Stapled Transanal Rectal Resection Registry was initiated in January 2006. This study was designed to analyze 12-month postoperative outcomes of this procedure using data collected in the registry.On May 17, 2008, data were downloaded from the Stapled Transanal Resection Registry to perform an analysis of 12-month outcomes. Data had been collected prospectively on effectiveness (symptom severity and obstructed defecation scores), quality of life, incontinence, and safety profile at baseline, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months.A total of 2,838 patients were entered into the registry, of whom 2,224 had reached 12 months of follow-up. Mean age was 54.7 years. A total of 2,363 patients (83.3%) were female. A significant improvement was seen in obstructive defecation and symptom severity scores and quality of life between baseline and 12 months (obstructed defecation score: 15.8 vs. 5.8, respectively, P < 0.001; symptom severity score: 15.1 vs. 3.6, respectively, P < 0.001). Complications were reported in 36.0% and included defecatory urgency (20.0%), bleeding (5.0%), septic events (4.4%), staple line complications (3.5%), and incontinence (1.8%). One case of rectal necrosis and one case of rectovaginal fistula were reported.Stapled transanal rectal resection produces improved function and better quality of life for patients with obstructed defecation that is maintained at 12 months of follow-up. Further investigation is required to optimize patient selection and reduce the potential complications of postoperative defecatory urgency and pain.