Practical and Effective Stomal Sphincter Creation: Evaluation in Pigs

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PURPOSE:Stoma creation frequently presents complications for which there is no satisfactory surgical solution. We reexamined the feasibility of managing stoma continence with an artificial sphincter, addressing the outstanding issues of geometry, electrode disposition, and fatigue resistance.METHODS:In 6 pigs, 1 rectus abdominis muscle was preconditioned with electric stimulation for 4 weeks by an implanted stimulator. A sphincter was then constructed and tested for its ability to provide continence against saline at a typical intestinal pressure. The result was compared with a sphincter fashioned from the unconditioned contralateral (control) muscle. In each case, stimulation was applied alternately to longitudinal segments.RESULTS:A 2-layered wrap was required to achieve continence. Sphincters created from the preconditioned muscles could sustain continence continuously for at least 90 minutes.CONCLUSION:This study establishes a practical approach to the creation of a sphincter from the rectus abdominis muscle in stoma patients. Continence can be achieved only with a double-layered wrap. Fatigue during long-term operation can be avoided by a combination of preconditioning and segmental stimulation of intramuscular nerve branches.

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