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Mesenteric embolization is an established treatment for lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome of angiography and embolization and its influencing factors.A prospective database of all mesenteric angiograms performed for lower gastrointestinal bleeding at a tertiary center between 1998 and 2008 was analyzed in combination with chart review.There were 107 angiograms performed during 83 episodes of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in 78 patients. Active bleeding was identified in 40 episodes (48%), and embolizations were performed in 37 (45%). One patient without active bleeding on angiogram also underwent embolization, making a total of 38 embolizations. Overall mortality was 7% with 4 deaths due to rebleeding and 2 deaths due to a medical comorbidity (respiratory failure, pneumonia). Short-term complications of angiography were false aneurysm (1 patient) and Enterobacter sepsis (1 patient). Long-term complications were groin lymphocele (1 patient) and late rebleed from collateralization (1 patient). In 43 episodes, angiography did not demonstrate active bleeding. Twelve (28%) of these patients continued to bleed, 9 of whom had successful surgery. Of the 38 patients who had embolizations, all had immediate cessation of bleeding. Nine patients (24%) later rebled; 5 of these patients required surgery and 3 had reembolizations. Of the 3 patients who underwent reembolization, 2 developed ischemic bowel and 1 stopped bleeding; surgery was required in 1 patient.Mesenteric angiography for lower gastrointestinal bleeding effectively identifies the site of bleeding in 48% of patients and allows embolization in 45%. Embolization achieves clinical success in 76% of patients but repeat embolization is associated with a high rate of complications.