Prevalence of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia Defined by Anal Cytology Screening and High-Resolution Anoscopy in a Primary Care Population of HIV-Infected Men and Women

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BACKGROUND:Prevalence of high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia, the human papillomavirus-associated putative anal cancer precursor, is high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men, but less is known about its prevalence in other HIV-infected subgroups. Similarly, the prevalence of abnormal cytology, used as a screen, is not well-defined in these subgroups.OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of abnormal cytology and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in a primary care HIV-infected population.DESIGN:This investigation was designed as a cross-sectional study.SETTING:This study took place at a Ryan White–funded clinic.PATIENTS:Included in the study were all (n = 779) HIV-infected patients receiving primary care services between March 2006 and March 2008.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The main outcome measures were anal cytology and high-resolution anoscopy results.RESULTS:The prevalence of abnormal cytology was 43%: 62% in men who reported receptive anal intercourse, 39% in women who reported receptive anal intercourse, and 25% in all others (P trend <.0001). High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia prevalence was 27%: 44% in men who reported receptive anal intercourse, 26% in women who reported receptive anal intercourse, and 10% in all others (P trend <.0001). Two patients had squamous-cell cancer. Independent predictors of dysplasia were CD4 at screening, receptive anal intercourse, sexual orientation, and history of human papillomavirus disease. Anal cytology and histology findings were not well correlated.LIMITATIONS:The study population may not be representative of the general HIV-infected population, there were differences between screened and unscreened patients and between patients with abnormal cytology who had high-resolution anoscopy and those who did not, only patients with abnormal cytology had high-resolution anoscopy, and there were possible misclassification errors and uncontrolled possible confounders.CONCLUSIONS:High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia is relatively common in HIV-infected patients regardless of sexual practice. Although risk increases with receptive anal intercourse, patient-provided information on this sexual practice should not be used as a determining factor for screening. Strategies to prevent anal cancer are necessary for all HIV-infected patients.

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