1 Department of General Surgery, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas2 Center for Surgical Trials and Evidence-based Practice, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas3 Department of Psychological, Health and Learning Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, Texas
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BACKGROUND:Greater understanding of barriers to screening of colorectal cancer among lower socioeconomic, particularly Hispanic, patients is needed to improve disparities in care.OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to explore patients’ perceptions and experiences of care seeking for colorectal cancer to identify barriers to early diagnosis and treatment.DESIGN:This explorative qualitative study was conducted as a focused ethnography of patients diagnosed with advanced-stage colorectal cancer.SETTINGS:This study was conducted at an urban safety-net hospital.PARTICIPANTS:Thirty lower-income, primarily minority, patients diagnosed with stage III and IV colorectal cancer without prior colorectal cancer screening were selected.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcomes measured were participants’ perceptions and experiences of colorectal cancer and barriers they faced in seeking diagnosis and treatmentRESULTS:Data analysis yielded 4 themes consistently influencing participants’ decisions to seek diagnosis and treatment: 1) limited resources for accessing care (structural barriers, including economic, health care and health educational resources); 2) (mis)understanding of symptoms by patients; misdiagnosis of symptoms, by physicians; 3) beliefs about illness and health, such as relying on faith, or self-care when symptoms developed; and 4) reactions to illness, including maintenance of masculinity, confusing interactions with physicians, embarrassment, and fear. These 4 themes describe factors on the structural, health care system, provider and patient level, that interact to make engaging in prevention foreign among this population, thus limiting early detection and treatment of colorectal cancer.LIMITATIONS:This study was limited by selection bias and the lack of generalizability.CONCLUSION:Improving screening rates among lower-income populations requires addressing barriers across the multiple levels, structural, personal, health care system, that patients encounter in seeking care for colorectal cancer. Acknowledging the complex, multilevel influences impacting patient health care choices and behaviors allows for the development of culturally tailored interventions, and educational, financial, and community resources to decrease disparities in cancer screening and care and improve outcomes for these at-risk patients. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A473.