An Evaluation of Risk Factors for Extubation Failure in Surgical Patients in Intensive Care

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BackgroundReintubations following extubation from mechanical ventilation are costly, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. The preparation for and timing of extubation from mechanical ventilation can reduce unplanned reintubations. Few studies have investigated reintubation in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) population.ObjectiveTo identify risk factors that predict extubation failure in nontrauma surgical postoperative intensive care patients.MethodsRetrospective analysis utilizing American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data and institutional clinical variables from July 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015, in a sample (N = 93) of surgical patients admitted postoperatively to a SICU with an endotracheal tube in place, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Logistic regression analysis was used to model extubation failure as a function of clinical variables in the 24 hours preceding extubation.ResultsOf 93 patients, 70 were successfully extubated, and 23 experienced failure. Increasing respiratory rate in the 24 hours preceding extubation significantly predicted failure (odds ratio, 1.086; 95% confidence interval, 1.006-1.172; P = .034).DiscussionElevated respiratory rates during the 24 hours preceding extubation are an underappreciated risk factor for extubation failure. This has direct implications for nurses who are assessing intensive care unit patients' readiness for extubation. Opportunity exists for nurses to better integrate respiratory rate data into extubation planning to improve unplanned reintubation rates in SICU patients.

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