Guidelines for pre-operative cardiac risk assessment and perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery: The Task Force for Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment and Perioperative Cardiac Management in Non-cardiac Surgery of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and endorsed by the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA)


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ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG): Alec Vahanian (Chairperson) (France), Angelo Auricchio (Switzerland), Jeroen J. Bax (The Netherlands), Claudio Ceconi (Italy), Veronica Dean (France), Gerasimos Filippatos (Greece), Christian Funck-Brentano (France), Richard Hobbs (UK), Peter Kearney (Ireland), Theresa McDonagh (UK), Keith McGregor (France), Bogdan A. Popescu (Romania), Zeljko Reiner (Croatia), Udo Sechtem (Germany), Per Anton Sirnes (Norway), Michal Tendera (Poland), Panos Vardas (Greece), Petr Widimsky (Czech Republic)Document Reviewers: Raffaele De Caterina (CPG Review Coordinator) (Italy), Stefan Agewall (Norway), Nawwar Al Attar (France), Felicita Andreotti (Italy), Stefan D. Anker (Germany), Gonzalo Baron-Esquivias (Spain), Guy Berkenboom (Belgium), Laurent Chapoutot (France), Renata Cifkova (Czech Republic), Pompilio Faggiano (Italy), Simon Gibbs (UK), Henrik Steen Hansen (Denmark), Laurence Iserin (France), Carsten W. Israel (Germany), Ran Kornowski (Israel), Nekane Murga Eizagaechevarria (Spain), Mauro Pepi (Italy), Massimo Piepoli (Italy), Hans Joachim Priebe (Germany), Martin Scherer (Germany), Janina Stepinska (Poland), David Taggart (UK), Marco Tubaro (Italy)PreambleGuidelines and Expert Consensus Documents aim to present management and recommendations based on the relevant evidence on a particular subject in order to help physicians to select the best possible management strategies for the individual patient with a specific condition, taking into account not only the impact on outcome but also the risk–benefit ratio of particular diagnostic or therapeutic means. Guidelines are no substitutes for textbooks. The legal implications of medical guidelines have been discussed previously.1A great number of Guidelines and Expert Consensus Documents have been issued in recent years by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and also by other organizations or related societies. Because of the impact on clinical practice, quality criteria for development of guidelines have been established in order to make all decisions transparent to the user. The recommendations for formulating and issuing ESC guidelines and Expert Consensus Documents can be found on the ESC website in the guidelines section (www.escardio.org).In brief, experts in the field are selected and undertake a comprehensive review of the published evidence for management and/or prevention of a given condition. A critical evaluation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures is performed, including assessment of the risk–benefit ratio. Estimates of expected health outcomes for larger societies are included, where data exist. The level of evidence and the strength of recommendation of particular treatment options are weighted and graded according to predefined scales, as outlined in Tables 1 and 2.The experts of the writing panels have provided disclosure statements of all relationships they may have which might be perceived as real or potential sources of conflicts of interest. These disclosure forms are kept on file at the European Heart House, headquarters of the ESC. Any changes in conflict of interest that arise during the writing period must be notified to the ESC. The Task Force report is entirely supported financially by the ESC without any involvement of industry.The ESC Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG) supervises and coordinates the preparation of new Guidelines and Expert Consensus Documents produced by Task Forces, expert groups, or consensus panels. The Committee is also responsible for the endorsement process of these Guidelines and Expert Consensus Documents or statements. Once the document has been finalized and approved by all the experts involved in the Task Force, it is submitted to outside specialists for review. The document is revised, and finally approved by the CPG and subsequently published.After publication, dissemination of the message is of paramount importance. Pocketsize versions and personal digital assistant (PDA)-downloadable versions are useful at the point of care.

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