Eriodictyol, a flavonoid isolated from Lyonia ovalifolia, was found to be the most potent insulin secretagogue in our preliminary studies. Here, we explored mechanism(s) of insulin secretory activity of eriodictyol in vitro and in vivo. Mice islets and MIN6 cells were incubated in basal and stimulatory glucose containing eriodictyol with or without agonist/antagonist. Secreted insulin and cAMP contents were measured using ELISA kits. K+- and Ca2+-channels currents were recorded with patch-clamp technique. Oral glucose tolerance test and plasma insulin was evaluated in non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Eriodictyol stimulated insulin secretion from mice islets and MIN6 cells only at stimulatory glucose concentrations with maximum effect at 200 μM. Eriodictyol showed no pronounced effect on inward rectifying K+ and Ca2+ currents. Furthermore, in KCl depolarized islets, in the presence of diazoxide, insulin secretory ability of eriodictyol was enhanced. IBMX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, significantly (P<0.001) enhanced eriodictyol-induced insulin secretion at 16.7 mM glucose in comparison to eriodictyol or IBMX alone. The cAMP content after eriodictyol exposure was also increased. Eriodictyol-induced insulin secretion was partially inhibited by adenylate cyclase inhibitor (SQ22536) and completely inhibited by PKA inhibitor (H-89), suggesting that the eriodictyol effect is more on PKA. Molecular docking studies showed the best binding affinities of eriodictyol with PKA. Eriodictyol improved glucose tolerance and enhanced plasma insulin in non-diabetic and diabetic rats. Eriodictyol also lowered blood glucose in diabetic rats upon chronic treatment. Taken together, it can be concluded that eriodictyol, a novel insulin secretagogue, exerts an exclusive glucose-dependent insulinotropic effect through cAMP/PKA pathway.