Many studies have shown the effects of sleep deprivation in several aspects of health and disease. However, little is known about how mitochondrial bioenergetics function is affected under this condition. To clarify this, we developed a simple model of short-term sleep deprivation, in which fruit-flies were submitted to a nocturnal light condition and then mitochondrial parameters were assessed by high resolution respirometry (HRR). Exposure of flies to constant light was able to alter sleep patterns, causing locomotor deficits, increasing ROS production and lipid peroxidation, affecting mitochondrial activity, antioxidant defense enzymes and caspase activity. HRR analysis showed that sleep deprivation affected mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity, decreasing respiration at oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and electron transport system (ETS). In addition, the expression of genes involved in the response to oxidative stress and apoptosis were increased. Thus, our results suggest a connection between sleep deprivation and oxidative stress, pointing to mitochondria as a possible target of this relationship.