REVISIONS TO THE ORNL SERIES OF ADULT AND PEDIATRIC COMPUTATIONAL PHANTOMS FOR USE WITH THE MIRD SCHEMA

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Abstract

Abstract—

The age-dependent series of stylized computational phantoms developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the late 1970’s to early 1980’s has found wide applicability in dosimetry studies ranging from dose coefficient compilations for external and internal photon emitters, simulations of patient radiological exams, and dose reconstruction activities. In the present study, we report on a series of revisions to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory series for their intended use within the MIRD schema of medical internal dosimetry. These revisions were made to (1) incorporate recent developments in stylized models of the head, brain, kidneys, rectosigmoid colon, and extra-pulmonary airways; (2) incorporate new models of the salivary glands and the mucosa layer of the urinary bladder, alimentary tract organs, and respiratory airways; (3) adopt reference values of elemental tissue compositions and mass densities from ICRP Publication 89 and ICRU Report 46; (4) provide for explicit treatment of left and right organs within organ pairs; (5) provide for a systematic tabulation of electron absorbed fractions as a function of energy and subject age for all internal organs; and (6) provide for methods of deriving patient-specific values of the specific absorbed fraction for both electrons and photons through interpolation/extrapolation of their phantom-derived values. While tomographic computational phantoms provide improved anatomic realism given the CT or MR image sets used in their construction, there does not yet exist a comprehensive series of reference pediatric tomographic phantoms, nor the ability to simulate very fine anatomic structures as can be modeled via mathematical approximation. Consequently, stylized pediatric phantoms will continue to fill this data need in medical dosimetry.

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