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We sought to evaluate the capabilities of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based methodologies for measuring prostate volume.Twenty-four male beagles with benign prostatic hyperplasia were enrolled in a drug trial and imaged at 5 time points. A total of 120 prostate volumes were determined by MRI-based semiautomated segmentation. For planimetric assessment, 8 diameter locations were determined in the axial and coronal plane of the MRI slice with maximum extension of the prostate. Thirteen calculation models based on these diameters were determined by comparison to the reference volume and evaluated during treatment.The segmented MRI prostate volume significantly correlated with post necropsy volume. The best diameter-based model also worked very well for monitoring prostate volume of dogs under treatment.MRI-based segmentation is highly accurate in assessing prostate volume. Diameter-based measurements are closely correlated to the segmented prostate volume and are feasible to monitor therapy.