Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate: Repeatability of Volume and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Quantification

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Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of a region of interest (ROI) volume and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in standard-of-care 3 T multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate obtained with the use of endorectal coil.

Materials and Methods

This prospective study was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant, with institutional review board approval and written informed consent. Men with confirmed or suspected treatment-naive prostate cancer scheduled for mpMRI were offered a repeat mpMRI within 2 weeks. Regions of interest corresponding to the whole prostate gland, the entire peripheral zone (PZ), normal PZ, and suspected tumor ROI (tROI) on axial T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced subtract, and ADC images were annotated and assessed using Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) v2. Repeatability of the ROI volume for each of the analyzed image types and mean ROI ADC was summarized with repeatability coefficient (RC) and RC%.

Results

A total of 189 subjects were approached to participate in the study. Of 40 patients that gave initial agreement, 15 men underwent 2 mpMRI examinations and completed the study. Peripheral zone tROIs were identified in 11 subjects. Tumor ROI volume was less than 0.5 mL in 8 of 11 subjects. PI-RADS categories were identical between baseline-repeat studies in 11/15 subjects and differed by 1 point in 4/15. Peripheral zone tROI volume RC (RC%) was 233 mm3 (71%) on axial T2-weighted, 422 mm3 (112%) on ADC, and 488 mm3 (119%) on dynamic contrast-enhanced subtract. Apparent diffusion coefficient ROI mean RC (RC%) were 447 × 10−6 mm−2/s (42%) in PZ tROI and 471 × 10−6 mm−2/s (30%) in normal PZ. Significant difference in repeatability of the tROI volume across series was observed (P < 0.005). The mean ADC RC% was lower than volume RC% for tROI ADC (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

PI-RADS v2 overall assessment was highly repeatable. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging sequences differ in volume measurement repeatability. The mean tROI ADC is more repeatable compared with tROI volume in ADC. Repeatability of prostate ADC is comparable with that in other abdominal organs.

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