The monobactam aztreonam is currently being re-examined as a therapeutic agent in light of the global spread of carbapenem resistance in aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and aztreonam's stability to Ambler class B metallo-β-lactamases. Of particular interest are the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of aztreonam alone and in combination with β-lactamase inhibitors. The choice of inhibitor may vary depending on the spectrum of β-lactamases produced by Enterobacteriaceae. The monobactam ring is also being used to produce new developmental monobactams. Thus, a greater understanding of aztreonam pharmacokinetics and dynamics is of great relevance in drug development. This review summarizes the pharmacokinetic profile of aztreonam in man and its pharmacodynamics in human and pre-clinical studies when studied alone and with β-lactamase inhibitors.