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A survey conducted by the Scoliosis Research Society found eighty-seven patients with acute neurological complications resulting from the treatment of scoliosis. The incidence of these complications was determined to be 0.72 per cent. Seventy-four major complications involving the spinal cord were reported, half of them complete paraplegia and half partial paraplegia. Thirty-six per cent recovered completely, 32 per cent had partial recovery, and 32 per cent had no return of function. Thirteen minor complications involving cranial and peripheral nerves were reported. Major complications occurred in forty-two cases of posterior spine fusion with Harrington instrumentation and in twenty cases of posterior spine fusion without instrumentation. Six patients became paraplegic following skeletal traction alone.