Radiographic analysis of the axial alignment of the lower extremity.

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The axial alignment of the lower extremities of twenty-five normal male volunteers whose mean age was thirty years was studied using a standardized radiograph of the entire lower extremity. The extremities were found to be in a mean of 1.5 degrees (right) and 1.1 degrees (left) of varus angulation at the knee between the tibial and femoral mechanical axes. The transverse axis of the knee lacked a mean of 3.0 degrees (right) and 2.6 degrees (left) of being perpendicular to the mechanical axis of the tibia. The anatomical axis of the femur did not pass through the center of the knee.

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